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Drafting

Drafting

One mistake teachers and writing tutors often see students make is stopping their writing process to go back and revise. While it's great to revise your work, you should not let it interrupt your flow of thought. Drafting, as the name implies, is getting your first draft down on paper. Spelling mistakes, typos, and grammar errors can be fixed later. It will be best for your time management (and make you feel more accomplished) if you have a significant amount of writing done before starting your revising.

Blending Source Material with Your Own Work

Blend sources with your statements. Organize your sources before and as you write so that they blend, even within paragraphs. Your paper—both globally and at the paragraph level—should show relationships among your sources, and should also show the relationships between your own ideas and those of your sources.

Write an original introduction and conclusion. As much as is practical, make the paper’s introduction and conclusion your own ideas or your own creation and combination of the ideas inherent in your research. Use fewer sources in your introduction and conclusion.

Open and close paragraphs with originality. In general, use the openings and closing of your paragraphs to reveal your work—“enclose” your sources among your assertions. At a minimum, create your own topic sentences and wrap-up sentences for paragraphs.

Use clear strategies for changing your reader's mind. When appropriate, outwardly practice such strategies as analysis, synthesis, comparison, contrast, summary, description, definition, hierarchical structure, evaluation, hypothesis, generalization, classification, and even narration. Prove to your reader that you are thinking as you write.

Also, you must clarify where your own ideas end and the cited information begins. Part of your job is to help your reader draw the line between these two things, often by the way you create the big picture for the cited information. A phrase such as “A 1979 study revealed that . . .” is an obvious announcement of citation to come. Another recommended technique is the insertion of the author’s name into the text to announce the beginning of your cited information. You may worry that you are not allowed to give the actual names of sources you have studied in the paper’s text, but just the opposite is true. In fact, the more respectable a source you cite, the more impressed your reader is likely to be with your material while reading. If you note that the source is the NASA Science website or an article by Stephen Jay Gould or a recent edition of The Wall Street Journal right in your text, you offer your readers immediate context without their having to guess or flip to the references page to look up the source.

What follows is an excerpt from a political science paper that clearly and admirably draws the line between writer and cited information:

The above political upheaval illuminates the reasons behind the growing Iranian hatred of foreign interference; as a result of this hatred, three enduring geopolitical patterns have evolved in Iran, as noted by John Limbert. First . . .

Note how the writer begins by redefining her previous paragraph’s topic (political upheaval), then connects this to Iran’s hatred of foreign interference, then suggests a causal relationship and ties her ideas into John Limbert’s analysis—thereby announcing that a synthesis of Limbert’s work is coming. This writer’s work also becomes more credible and meaningful because, right in the text, she announces the name of a person who is a recognized authority in the field. Even in this short excerpt, it is obvious that this writer is using proper citation and backing up her own assertions with confidence and style.

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Writing process

Citations

Start citing your references early. Often, if you misplace a file or link, your reference citation will be what guides you back to the material. Ideally, you should begin this processes earlier, when doing your initial research. By the time you're drafting your paper, you will need to start putting your references down based on which items you directly refer to or quote in your paper.